Georgia, culture and history
"Bremmer", Tilburg, 3 September 2000- opening of the exposition
Reality and dreams, childhood, everyday impressions, cultural and spiritual background of the country of birth. Different combinations of all mentioned above in different levels are involved in the creative process of art.
Gotscha was born and raised in Georgia. This sunny country, rich by oldest culture and mythology, known by special lifestyle and traditions has natural influence on his works. Gotscha is working metal armours and small sculptures by means of technology, which has itself very big tradition in Georgia. By archaeologists were found specific Georgian armours, dated from XIII century before Christ. Greek historical of V century BC - Herodotus is mentioning about tradition of armour in Georgia. For Georgians armour is not only the defending attribute, but is also symbolizes the spiritual strength. That can be one of the reasons, why armours sometimes were presented to Christian churches.
One of the attributes of Georgian armours is a mail coat, which is made by sticking the rings together. Itself ring had different forms, which was dependent on the meaning of the work and the creative process of an artist. A mail coat, as well as other attributes of armour, was traditionally made with the creative artistic process. That's is why nearly every Georgian armour differs from any other - by its stylistic and creative independence. Gotscha, based on Georgian philosophical understanding of on armour, riser the old, nearly forgotten technology. He is making armours with the artistic creative process, creating new nuances of forms of the main parts or details. That is why his works in this direction have their strong identity and that is why they have high original artistic value. With the same unique technology he is creating small sculptures, which makes them very special. These sculptures have mainly round shapes, which give to them certain stylistic direction.
Gotscha's work is full of mystery and spirituality. In the work of Gotscha can be seen strongly indicated Christian symbols, - with the meaning of the basic spiritual fundament of humanity. But he is also creating personal symbols like: The Flower- symbol of beauty, the form of the boll - symbol of universality of the form or idea.
In our modern times many artists try to look back in time and base their art on oldest cultures of the world, but for Gotscha Lagidse that is a natural process through his the place of birth.
Zura Kalanda (Kalandadze) / art critics
First Blacksmiths in Georgia
Tubals (Tabals) and Meshechs (or Meshekhs/Mosokhs) were most ancient, non-IndoEuropean and non-Semitic indigenous tribes of Asia Minor and the Caucasus of the 3rd-1st millennias BC. They were Proto-Iberian tribes. Descendants of Tubals and Meshekhs are Georgians. The Book of Genesis (chap. 10) gives us the descendants of Noah's three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. We are told that the sons of Japheth were Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. Tubals, Khalibs, Mosiniks were founders of metallurgy. According to majority of scholars the ancient country of Tubal (Tabal) comprised the area of Great Cappadocia (now territory of Turkey). Already the modern scholars identified the term Tubal with Tabal, Tobal, Jabal and Tibarenoi. Many authors, following Josephus (1st century AD), related the term to Iber. Concerning the question of the ethnic affinity of the population of Tubal, Josephus wrote: "Tobal gave rise to the Tobals, which are now called Iberians". This version was repeated by Eustathius of Antioch, Bishop Theodoret and others. Iberians were Georgians, the population of the Kingdom of Iberia (Eastern and South-Eastern Georgia). One of greatest Georgian historians of the 20th century, Ivane Javakhishvili, considered Tabal, Tubal, Jabal and Jubal to be ancient Georgian tribal designations. On the evidence of Hecataeus, Herodotus, Xenophon, Strabo and others, the Georgian (Kartvelian) tribe of Tibarenoi lived in the north of the territory of Tubal. Main sources of the history of Tubal are also Assyrian texts of the 9th- 7th centuries BC, the Cappadocian tablets and the hieroglyphic-Luwian inscriptions of the 9th - 8th centuries BC.
WEAPONS OF BEAUTY
Today, Issue nr.28,
by Julie Guyot
The existence of the primitive man on the Georgian territory can be traced back to the Achelian and Mousterian epochs of Upper Paleolithic.
The Bronze Age on the territory of Georgia started in the 2nd millennium BC.
The excavations of barrows in Trialeti and Samtavro belong to this period. In the middle of the 2nd and the beginning of the 1st millennium, on the territory of Georgia a number of large, ancient Georgian tribal alliances were formed. In the 6th-4th cc BC emerged Georgian slave-owning kingdoms - Colchis (Western Georgia) and Iberia (Eastern and Southern Georgia).
The beginning on the new era was marked with Roman expansion towards Georgia. In the 4th-5th cc AD Lazika(Kolchis) fell into sphere of Sasanian Iran.
In 337 Georgia officially adopted Christianity. By the 6th century it had been made up into a feudal state and was seized by Arabs in the 7th century. As a result of liberation movement (the 9th century) Arab invaders were thrown off. In the 10th-11th centuries Georgia was united under the Royal House of Bagrationi. Georgia became especially prosperous during the reign of David IV (the Builder) (1089-1125). He was able to unify Georgia, weaken influential feudals and create a powerful state. The policy of unification as well as of the cultural and economic development of the country was continued under George III (1156-1184) and Queen Tamar (1184-1213). Such a policy resulted in the super power with numerous vassalates.
The rise in economy was accompanied by the golden age in culture. It is the period when Shota Rustaveli creates his masterpiece, "Kartlis Tskovreba" (the set of historical essays) is written, academies, monasteries and spiritual centres are set up.
In the first half of the 13th century the country was seized by Mongols and disintegrated into numerous kingdoms and counties. In the 15th century the Mongolian pressure weakened but Georgia got in a strangle grip of Turkey and Iran.
However, Georgia never gave up and kept struggling against its invaders. At the same time, economic decay hindered the development of the state. In 1783, King Irakli II established the protectorate of Russia over the Georgian Kingdom. This act is known as the Treaty of Giorgievsk. In 1801 Russia violated the Treaty, included Georgia in its empire an abolished the Georgian Kingdom. Georgian people rose against the Russian autocracy. After the Russian emperor had been overthrown, Georgia was declared an independent democratic republic (26 May, 1918). Democracy lasted in Georgia only for three years. In 1921 it was annexed by the Red Army and became a part of the Soviet Union (1921-1990). In 1991 Georgia declared independence and seceded from the USSR.